The medicinal parts are the seeds and the aerial parts of the plant.
Flower and Fruit
The terminal flowers are almost sessile. They are arranged in numerous, distinct whorls. They have dropping, silky-haired bracts. The corolla is bright yellow with a blunted boat-shaped tip. The fruit is an oblong-lanceolate, 5 to 7 cm by 1 cm, densely pubescent pod with nodes. It contains 4 to 7 yellowish, reddish-white, black or dark violet marbled seeds 5.5 to 6.5 mm long.
Leaves, Stem, and Root
The plant is an annual with up to a 1 m long taproot, which contains numerous lateral roots. The stem is light green and pubescent with numerous side shoots. The 5 to 10 leaves are oblong-obovate to lanceolate, 4 to 8 cm long, acuminate, and pubescent on both sides.
The plant is indigenous to Europe, Asia, and North and South America.
Lupin herb and seeds are the aerial part and seeds of Lupinus luteus and other Lupinus species.
Actions & Pharmacology
Compounds: In the Foliage
Quinolizidine alkaloids (0.6-1.6%): sparteine (55-70%), lupinine (20-30%), p-cumaroyllupinine (10%); in cultivated strains (sweet lupins), alkaloid content is 0.01-0.8%
Compounds: In the Seeds
Quinolizidine alkaloid (0.4-3.3%): lupinine (60%), sparteine (30%); in some cultivated strains, gramine; in cultivated strains (sweet lupins), alkaloid content is less than 0.1%
Fatty oil (4-6%)
Carbohydrates: including stachyose (6%)
There has been no research on the effects of the drug; however, an anthelmintic effect has been established for the constituents lupinin and benzolylupinin.
Indications & Usage
Yellow Lupin is used externally for ulcers. It is used internally for urinary tract disorders and worm infestation.
Precautions & Adverse Reactions
See Overdosage section.
Symptoms of poisoning include salivation, swallowing difficulties, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, hypocyclosis, double vision, cardiac rhythm disorders, and prickling sensation in the extremities. In cases of severe poisoning, symptoms include ascending paralysis and possible death through respiratory failure within a few hours. The intake of a single seed of a bitter lupin is said to be toxic for a child. In one case, a small child died following intake of several seeds. The intake of more than one pod of the plant or 10 seeds by an adult is said to trigger vomiting and should be treated with administration of activated charcoal. Following gastrointestinal emptying (inducement of vomiting, gastric lavage with burgundy-colored potassium permanganate solution, sodium sulfate) and installation of activated charcoal, the therapy for severe poisonings consists of electrolyte substitution, treating possible cases of acidosis with sodium bicarbonate infusions, and administering orciprenaline or lidocaine for cardiac rhythm disorders. In case of shock, plasma volume expanders should be administered. Intubation and oxygen respiration may also be necessary.
The lupinosis seen in animals is caused by mycotoxins that are formed from the fungus Phomopsis leptostromiformis, which can live as an endophyte in lupins.
Mode of Administration
The drug is used internally as an infusion, and externally in poultices.