The rose contains about 100 different species. Rose oil is produced from the petals. The oil can help calm oral inflammation due to its high tannin content.
The medicinal parts are the petals and the oil extracted from them. Rose is also used in homeopathic medicine.
Flower and Fruit
The flowers are usually solitary, more rarely in twos and threes, on 2- to 3-cm long, thickly glandular pedicles. The calyx is round to pear-shaped and is usually thickly covered with stem glands and gland bristles. The velvety petals are pink to purple, 2 to 3 cm long and wide. The style and stigma form the ovary that is surrounded by carpels enclosed in the calyx, forming woolly capitula. The ripe, red-brown false fruit is 1 to 1.5 cm long.
Leaves, Stem, and Root
The plant, a descendant of Rosa gallica is a low shrub with extensive runners and above ground reedlike shoots, which are erect and branched. They usually grow to between 0.5 to 1 m and are covered with long, revolute, or erect thorns and stem glands of different length. The leaves, which are usually penfoliate, less frequently trifoliate, have long glanular, dark green above, lighter and bluer below, leaflets. They grow together at the leaf stem that terminate in free tips.
Rose is probably indigenous to Iran and is cultivated worldwide.
Rose flowers consist of the dried petals of Rosa gallica and Rosa centifolia that are gathered prior to fully unfolding. The petals are harvested by hand and dried in the shade.
Cabbage Rose, Damask Rose, French Rose, Hundred-Leafed Rose
Actions & Pharmacology
Tannins: oligomeric proanthocyanidins
Volatile oil (in the fresh blossoms): chief components (-)-citronellol, geraniol, nerol, phenyl ethanol, Including as well (-)-linalool, and citral
The astringent effect attributed to the drug is due to the tannin content.
Indications & Usage
Approved by Commission E:
- Inflammation of the mouth and pharynx
Rose flowers are used in folk medicine internally for diarrhea, tuberculosis of the lungs, pulmonary catarrh and asthma, hemorrhage and leukorrhea. Externally, it is used for inflammations of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, suppurating wounds, and lid inflammation.
In India, Rose is used for coughs, bronchitis, asthma, fever, and general debility. It is also used for wounds and hyperhydrosis.
Precautions & Adverse Reactions
No health hazards or side effects are known in conjunction with the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages.
Mode of Administration
Rose flowers are available as whole, crude and powdered drug forms for internal and external use.
Tea – 1 to 2 g drug added to 1 cup (200 mL) water.
Rose vinegar – 60 g petals added to 750 mL red wine vinegar.
- Tea infusion – up to 3 cups per day. It is also used for rinses and washes.
- Powder – 5 to 10 g with honey or liquid.
- The leaves can be applied directly to the eyes.
Should be tightly sealed and stored in dry and cool place.