The leaves are the medicinal part of the plant.
Flower and Fruit
The corolla is 4 to 7 mm in diameter, usually pink to red but sometimes white. The petals are thickly covered in glands. The tube is 2 cm long as are the obtuse and patent lobes. The anther appendages are long, pubescent and twisted. The follicles are 8 to 16 cm by 0.5 to 1 cm, erect, and reddish-brown.
Leaves, Stem, and Root
The evergreen plant can be tree or shrublike. The trunks are up to 4 m high. The leaves are 6 to 12 by 1.2 to 2 cm, linear-lanceolate, sharp-edged, coriaceous, and dark green.
Nerium oleander grows mainly in the Mediterranean region but also in parts of Asia. It is cultivated in Europe.
Oleander leaf is the leaf of Nerium oleander, collected shortly before flowering and then dried in the shade.
Actions & Pharmacology
Cardiac steroids (cardenolide): chief components are 16-acetyl neogistonin, adynerin, 5alpha-adynerin, gentiobiosyl-adynerin, delta16-dehydroadynerin, digitoxigenin oleandroside, gentibioosyl-odoroside A, gentiobiosyl-oleandrin, glucosyl-oleandrin, oleandrigenin glucoside, kaneroside, neriaside, nerigoside, neriumoside
Pregnanes and pregnane glycosides: including 12beta-hydroxy-16alpha-methoxy-pregna-4,6-dien-3,20-dione
Oleander is positively inotropic and negatively chronotropic. The cardenolide glycosides of the drug are qualitatively digitoxin-like in their action, but generally weaker, probably due to the lower rate of absorption.
Indications & Usage
Folk medicine uses of Oleander leaf include diseases and functional disorders of the heart, as well as skin diseases. Previous internal application for myocardial insufficiency, decompensated hypertonia, and cardiac insufficiency is no longer common.
Among uses in Indian medicine are scabies, eye diseases (using only the juice of the leaves), and hemorrhoids.
Precautions & Adverse Reactions
No health hazards are known in conjunction with the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages. Side effects can include, particularly in the case of overdosages, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, stupor, and cardiac arrhythmias.
Concurrent use may result in increased risk of digoxin toxicity. Clinical Management: Cardiac glycosides in oleander are detectable by a digoxin radioimmunoassay; however, the digoxin level obtained varies according to the assay used and cannot be used to guide dosing of digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments. Administration of digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments has been successful in treating cases of oleander toxicity.
Quinidine, Calcium Salts, Saluretics, Laxatives, or Glucocorticoids
Concurrent use may result in increases of both efficacy and side effects.
See Precautions and Adverse Reactions.
Forms of commercial pharmaceutical preparations include solutions, coated tablets and compound preparations.
No information is available.
Oleander should be stored where it is protected from dampness and light.